This expression means to be held accountable for something (a crime or failure).
Hats have been associated for centuries with social status, as looking at somebody’s hat one could usually determine their profession or social class. For example, aristocrats would often wear distinctive top hats.
In the 17th century, ‘putting a hat on someone’s head’ implied changing the hat they originally wore and therefore slandering them or ruining their reputation.
In the 20th century, the expression we hear today, ‘to wear the hat’, evolved with the meaning of being guilty or accused of something.
You may also hear faire porter le chapeau à quelqu’un (‘to make someone wear the hat’), which means to make someone responsible for something.
Sur les chapeaux de roues (literally ‘on the hats of the wheels’):
This expression is often used with the verbs commencer (to start), partir (to leave) and démarrer (to start up/kick off).
It means to move off very quickly.
Les chapeaux des roues (‘the hats of the wheels’) was a term used to describe the hubcaps of a car – the decorative metal or plastic disks we find on wheels. When a driver took a turn too quickly, it would look like the hubcaps touched the ground and the expression evolved to refer to any activity that starts quickly.
Travailler du chapeau (literally ‘to work from the hat’):
This expression refers to someone who is perceived as delirious or a little bit crazy.
In the past, hat-makers in factories were exposed to mercury in the felt used to make the hats. They would therefore suffer from symptoms such as slurred speech, memory loss, insomnia and delusions.
To the outside eye, they would appear to be crazy, which inspired the expression.
In English, a saying of similar origin is ‘mad as a hatter’.
FRENCH EXPRESSIONS RELATED TO THE WORD ‘ HOMME’
Un homme de paille (literally ‘a man of straw’):
An ‘homme de paille’ is somebody who presents themselves as someone else, often in a dubious affair.
In the 17th century, the expression was used to describe somebody of low social standing, with little financial means – they were seen to be as worthless as straw.
It is said that an association was made with someone who covers for others by lending their identity – his morals are worthless, again like straw.
However, another theory is that the expression was inspired by the straw mannequins used in combat training, which took hits instead of a real person.
Homme de main (literally ‘a handman’):
A ‘handman’ is someone who carries out (often violent) actions for another. An English equivalent might be ‘henchman’.
The hand in this expression represents action and is synonymous with combat. The ‘handman’ carries out the orders of someone else.
Comme un seul homme (literally ‘as a single man’):
This expression means ‘unanimously’, ‘together’ or ‘in agreement’.
It has its origins in the Old Testament, in the Book of Judges where ‘all the people [of Israel] stood like one man’ to demand justice for a crime that had been committed.
The image of ‘one man’ represents unity and is employed multiple times throughout the Bible, including in the Books of Samuel and Ezra.
One of its first recorded uses in the French language was in 1832 by the writer Balzac in his novel La Femme de trente ans (A Woman of Thirty).
In French Guiana, the Laboratoire of excellence CEBA (Center for the study of biodiversity in Amazonia) seeks to understand why so many organisms are present in tropical ecosystems. The LabEx brings together a network of internationally-recognized French research teams, contributes to university education, and encourages scientific collaboration with South American countries.
Amazonia is a huge territory that has not finished revealing all its mysteries. Our science is varied: health, coastline, fauna, flora and human sciences. In all, more than 150 researchers from 13 different laboratories spread across French Guana, the french Antilles and France are working within the CEBA, looking towards the Amazon.
CEBA is a thematic network of research teams. The operational management of the CEBA is ensured by an executive director, located in French Guiana, a scientific director assists the executive director in scientific strategy, and a director of the education in charge of projects related to education.
> A direction committee coordinates research actions. > A scientific board provides scientific expertise to the Management Committee. > Finally, an international scientific board provides scientific expertise and an international perspective on the projects developed at CEBA.
Tropical forest ecosystems are being converted at a rapid pace for agriculture or urban development, and it is of fundamental importance to understand how this biodiversity contributes to maintaining ecosystem services, how it may provide resources for human welfare, and whether these environmental changes may critically alter this biodiversity.
French Guiana, an overseas Region of France, is an ideal natural laboratory for tropical biodiversity, gathering an unparalleled scientific expertise in the fields of biodiversity research, tropical medicine, tropical forestry, and evolutionary ecology. The combination of scientific excellence with its long-term capacity, CEBA is in a unique position to promote innovative research in the field of biodiversity in Guyana and to act in synergy between academics and stakeholders.
Education & training
The CEBA conducts a collaborative effort to foster education and training programs in French Guiana, within the Université de Guyane. It offers the opportunity to network several Masters programs in the fields of evolutionary ecology, tropical forest ecology and plant biodiversity.
CEBA opens annual calls for doctoral research grants. CEBA offers post-doctoral positions for research associates supervised by CEBA members as part of the core research activities. CEBA funds and organises thematic schools on important aspects of biodiversity in French Guiana.
As part of these actions, the physical presence of the students or research associates in French Guiana is strongly encouraged.
CEBA aims at coordinating and facilitating scientific research on biodiversity in French Guiana and, beyond that, in Amazonia. However, biodiversity is also important for many actors or stakeholders in the territory of French Guiana, and it is also of interest and concern to citizens. Through an active communication strategy CEBA seeks to convey the results of academic research beyond a small group of specialists.
Local collectivities (Region, Departement, municipalities) and State services are crucial actors in the management of biodiversity. Their primary goal is to ensure welfare, health, and sustainable development while pondering the constraints of the environment. CEBA helps them by providing a knowledge base in the area of environment and biodiversity, in particular in the scope of the access to benefit sharing issues.
National or regional institutes in charge of environmental management or conservation are often close collaborators with the partners of CEBA. They share a concern for the sustainable management of natural resources, and work with CEBA to increase the quality of diagnostics and conservation planning.
Non governemental organizations are actively engaged in the long-term monitoring of animal populations, in dissemination activities, and in conservation. CEBA collaborates with them in developing educational supports, in facilitating data analyses, and in sharing cutting-edge information through workshops or training activities.
Public health issues are directly faced by physicians and medecins at the Cayenne General Hospital, and also by the center for clinical investigation and clinical epidemiology for the Antilles and French Guiana (CIC-EC). They are also often detected by health centers in French Guiana’s interior (Centres de Santé) which represent advanced posts in medicine. CEBA offers a unique opportunity to assemble a more solid body of knowledge about emerging and well-known diseases alike, for the benefit of the medical staffs.
Reunion Island is heaven on earth for those who enjoy outdoor sports, and there are almost 1,000 kilometres of hiking trails winding all over the island. 42% of the island is listed as World Heritage by Unesco.
You can enjoy all kinds of sports on the ultimate island (MTB, paragliding, diving, deep-sea fishing, canyoning) but one of them is unique, original and sometimes offers a brand-new experience: the Grand Raid of Reunion Island!
The Grand Raid of Reunion Island is considered a legendary “Ultra Trail”, due to the difficulty encountered and the rugged mountain tracks of the island. There are four races in this competition, including the “Diagonale des Fous” (Madmen’s Diagonal) which is part of the Ultra Trail World Tour (UTWT), which groups together the most iconic races in the discipline.
La Diagonale des fous has even been named the most iconic Ultra Trail in the world by the French magazine l’Equipe.
Test your limits !
To end the season, every year in October, those looking to win the title come to the island to participate in the Grand Raid of Reunion Island.
The very best of the world’s trail runners come every year, to take on the 166 km, with 9,600 metres of uphill climbs, departing from Saint-Pierre, and try to get to Saint-Denis as quickly as possible.
The Grand Raid of Reunion Island, at the heart of the national park, is for those looking for some excitement and for experienced trail runners. It is a popular race with participants from the island, from metropolitan France, overseas and from all over the Indian Ocean. The Reunion Island Diagonale des Fous is well-known across the globe, and is one of the 15 most difficult races in the world, with participants coming from 50 different countries!
This race is more than just a trail run, it’s an opportunity to push the boundaries, it’s a challenge, the “Madmen’s Diagonal”. You have to be a madman/woman to run across Reunion Island, from south to north.
Up in the mountains, with conditions that can sometimes be unpredictable, the Grand Raid of Reunion Island is all about effort, solidarity, conviviality, encounters and the ultimate pleasure for the senses. Thanks to these sensations, emotions and thrills, competitors always aim to push themselves to their ultimate limits.
How can you prepare for an ultramarathon on Reunion Island ?
Regular weekly training You need to train on a regular basis At least 4 sessions per week are essential to be able to run an ultramarathon. We also recommend regular physical training such as weightlifting.
Long-term preparation You should start your preparation well before the race. Start preparing for the race around ten months before, and make sure you put on the brakes one week before the competition.
Adapt your body to intense effort and differences in altitude Get used to running for a long time and along tracks with steep uphill/downhill sections. If you live on flat terrain, you can train in a gym to replace the training sessions in mountainous terrain.
Test equipment Make sure you test your equipment before the day of the race. Some of your equipment could be faulty or maybe not suitable for your body shape and/or the way you run.
Mental preparation This race is a long and difficult one. The landscapes you’ll be crossing may be magnificent, but the challenge will not always be pleasurable. Make sure you prepare yourself mentally, to be ready to take on the Grand Raid of Reunion Island.
Study the terrain We recommend you study the terrain before taking on this race. If you know the terrain well, you will be able to manage your race and your endurance much better. If you can’t go there before the actual race, you can study the map.
Manage your pace and endurance With the right training and experience, you’ll be able to develop your own strategy for the race. Learn to know your own body and know how to manage your effort.
Good recovery After such an effort, you must remember to recover properly. Make sure you plan for recovery time and plenty of rest. If you do not recover properly after this kind of effort, this could lead to serious injuries.
Reunion Island hosts one of the most unique seabird communities in the world, including two endangered endemic petrels, the Barau’s petrel (Pterodroma baraui) and the Mascarene black petrel (Pseudobulweria aterrima).
These species are in dire need of emergency conservation measures. They already benefit from national action plans, but the implementation of conservation actions suffers from ecological, technical and financial constraints, resulting in conflicts between nature conservation and socio-economic development. France has the sixth highest proportion of its endemic species threatened at the European level, although these species are mainly located in overseas territories where conservation efforts need to be stepped up to fully implement the EU Biodiversity Strategy by 2020.
Reunion is the only tropical island in the world to host two endemic petrels. However, if nothing is done quickly, these two species will join the list of 22 species of bird which have already become extinct on the island. This loss of biodiversity is not just a local ecological disaster, but also a worldwide disaster, because once these species are gone, we will never get them back. For years, Reunion National Park has been working to protect these species with the Société d’Études Ornithologiques de La Réunion [SEOR], the Office National de la Chasse et de la Faune Sauvage [ONCFS] Brigade Nature Océan Indien [BNOI], and the University of Reunion to rescue stranded petrels, organise the“Nights Without Lights” Campaign, to look for nesting sites in the island’s mountains, and to monitor petrel colonies and populations. This is an emergency situation and two national action plans (NAPs) have already been set up (1. Mascarene Petrel NAP, 2012 and 2. Barau’s Petrel NAP, 2008) which identify threats to the species and what needs to be done to conserve them, including clearing rubbish and reducing numbers of wild predators (cats and rats) as well as levels of light pollution.
In order to halt the decline of these species, in 2015 a 5-year European project was initiated, dedicated to protecting these two species of endemic petrel, and with key partners joined forces to save the Mascarene Petrel and Barau’s Petrel. These partners have been working together for over ten years now. The aim of the LIFE + Petrels project is to prevent these species from becoming extinct. It will develop and implement innovative strategies and conservation techniques in a highly urbanized island, and will remove regulatory, technological and logistical barriers. It will consult and involve stakeholders, reduce threats to the species and will engage in conservation activities compatible with the island’s economic development. These endangered endemic species are among the rarest seabirds in the world.
=>Protect natural heritage
– Improve our knowledge of and identify colonies of Mascarene Petrels in the highest peaks of the island, previously unknown and inaccessible settlements, using innovative methods – Reduce numbers of introduced predators (cats and rats) in the environment and reduce light pollution – Raise public awareness
=>Protect cultural heritage
– Make a compendium of stories and legends based around petrels – Develop cultural events – Implement new practices, projects and teaching tools – Raise local awareness and involve local stakeholders in the sustainable conservation of petrels
=>Create, innovate and educate
– Create partnerships and exchange programs with other countries (training, techniques, seminars etc.) – Bring in experts and visit similar sites (Hawaii, Fiji, New Zealand) – Train students – Create advanced local technology (beacons, GPS, Smartphone applications) – Become a leader in the conservation of these species without affecting economic development
This project will contribute to the development of personal and organisational skills in conservation, which will be transferable to other islands with similar problems.
Halting biodiversity loss and preventing the extinction of these heritage species are the major challenges this project will face. To achieve this goal, a concerted conservation strategy will be implemented in partnership with local stakeholders. The project will be the first in Reunion Island to establish large-scale, concerted conservation efforts across the island, from the coastline up to the highest peaks.
Petrels are ideal pilot species to demonstrate that social acceptance, also called “Ecological Solidarity”, is essential to improve the link between natural, protected upland areas, where petrels nest, and urbanized coastal regions through which petrels must pass in order to reach the sea.
The entire population of the island needs to be made aware of the plight faced by Petrels. Therefore, this project will not be limited to conservation projects in upland areas and the National Park, but will also target the island’s socioeconomic actors with the ultimate aim of establishing a collaborative program which will boost local initiatives.
Biodiversity conservation requires the development of modern and suitable techniques and everyone needs to get involved.
Indeed, the island context of Reunion, its diversity of habitats and its extremely mountainous terrain make it unique and extraordinary. However, it also makes it harder to use conventional conservation tools. Research and innovation are thus essential for a coherent and sustainable conservation strategy.
On a larger scale, these innovative initiatives will bring knowledge which will be shared around the world, making Reunion’s plight better known in the Indian Ocean and further afield.
A true gem in the Hauts of Réunion, located in the municipalities of Saint-Paul and La Possession, Mafate has the particularity of being the only cirque on the island to be accessible only by foot or by helicopter. A listed UNESCO World Heritage Site like its neighbours Cilaos and Salazie, this exceptional, unspoilt territory protected from the nuisance of motor traffic is home to incredible biodiversity, full of native species. A haven for hikers and other nature-lovers, with around 180 kilometres and landscaped paths, this haven of peace and tranquillity, surrounded by dizzying ramparts, will leave you with unforgettable memories… A totally unique place where you can not only admire fantastic wild landscapes, but also meet the residents of Mafate, of which there are around 750 inhabiting the nine islets of the cirque. This adventure will be even more unforgettable if you spend the night there, in one of the gîtes with tables d’hôte dining. A great opportunity to socialise and also appreciate the very special, serene atmosphere of the area…
The Cirque de Mafate is a caldera. It was formed from the collapse of the large shield volcano the “Piton des Neiges.(3070m)”
The very remote and inaccessible cirque was settled in the 19th century by maroon slaves (i.e. slaves who had escaped from their masters), then later by poor white laborers. It owes its name to one maroon leader.
The project falls within the context of civil society’s demand to see Reunionese decision-makers commit to a credible alternative to the current territorial model. Indeed, the yellow vests crisis that erupted in October 2018 highlighted the need for the territory to deploy a clear strategy aimed at establishing a viable societal model, the current economic model of Reunion being almost 90% based on public funding that is no longer guaranteed.
ISOPOLIS thus aims more broadly to make Reunion a living global demonstrator of an agile and resilient society capable of combining environmental preservation, social equity and a prosperous economy.
The objective is to support the transformation of the Reunionese societal model towards a viable model, based on the individual resilience of Reunionese and territorial and collective resilience.
It is broken down into 3 specific objectives:
Strengthen Reunion’s territorial resilience capacities in order to develop its ability to integrate the environmental, social and economic constraints that threaten its development in order to establish a viable model over time.
Strengthen the individual resilience capacities of people of la Réunion to develop their ability to make a significant contribution to the development of their territory while cultivating a quality of being and of life. This will be achieved through the deployment of targeted experiments designed to strengthen the individual development, well-being and well-being of all ages and backgrounds by supporting their quest for meaning and contribution.
Mobilize the population of Reunion around societal issues in order to consolidate cohesion and robust unity, through the culture of knowledge and the recognition of its culture.
In order to achieve these objectives, three approaches have been chosen: the evaluation of the impacts of public policies by scientists, governance and cooperation by sociocracy, or governance by consent and the use of an alternative territorial index to the Product Gross National (GNP): Gross National Happiness (GNP).
In this project, IRD researchers are adopting an original position: that of supporting civil society by evaluating and measuring the impact of its interventions or experiments. This project is thus rooted in interdisciplinarity and citizen science.
The Beta phase has three objectives:
Evaluation of the mobilization and co-construction approach of the ALPHA project to identify areas for improvement in order to take them into account in the ISOPOLIS project
Territorial mobilization: engage local stakeholders in the ISOPOLIS project, identify and mobilize researchers likely to support the project and publicize the project among citizens, civil society in particular, via the RISOM network and gather the opinions of Reunionese.
Preliminary methodological structuring: continue the structuring work identified in ALPHA
The CRIOBE is a research laboratory with more than 70 staff, including academic professors, research scientists and administrative and technical personnel from three of France’s premiere research institutions – École Pratique des Hautes Études (EPHE), the National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS) and the University of Perpignan Via Domitia (UPVD) – that together form the CRIOBE USR 3278 research unit. The CRIOBE falls under the prestigious umbrella of the PSL (Paris Sciences & Letters) Research University.
CRIOBE’s activities span multiple disciplines : ecology, conservation biology, genetics, chemistry and anthropology and its laboratories are spread across two main campuses : the University of Perpignan (UPVD) in the south of France and the CRIOBE research station located on the island of Moorea, French Polynesia.
Specifically, scientists at the CRIOBE focus on the following three principle areas of research:
Molecular Genetics. An integrative approach for the study of coral reefs.
Biology of populations, chemical ecology and ecosystem interactions on coral reefs.
Function and governance of socio-ecosystems.
CRIOBE was established in 1971 by France’s National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS). It began as a modest research station on the island of Moorea, French Polynesia. Since this time, CRIOBE has evolved and grown considerably. Today, CRIOBE is a world class research centre with two locations: Moorea, French Polynesia and the University of Perpignan in the south of France.
The CRIOBE delivers graduate level courses and offers both Masters and Doctorate degrees. The Masters programs are offered through the EPHE or UPVD. The research-based Doctoral program, similarly, is offered through either the EPHE or UPVD, or a combination of the two.
The threatened coral
“Beyond our observations of corals, we cultivate them in the lagoon of Moorea and subject them to extreme conditions to know their reactions” says Annaïg Le Guen, director of Criobe since December 1, 2018. “They are vertebrates, fixed marine organisms with their exoskeleton whose shape is specific to the species. There are hard ones, those that make up coral reefs, but others are soft. There are 850 species in the world, 183 in Polynesia. But over the past 50 years, it is estimated that 20% have disappeared. Losses due mostly to pollution and physical impact by humans by building airports, for example. But also at one time by the invasion of acanthasters. , these starfish devoured the reefs but there this mysterious phenomenon for us was apparently natural. Just like the ravages of successive cyclones.”
Over the past 50 years, it is estimated that 20% have disappeared. Losses mostly due to pollution and physical impact by humans
Annaïg Le Guen, director of Criobe
Global warming which increases the temperature of the water and its acidity are also threatening factors. “That’s why corals bleach. Some, however, are resilient. After a few years, they regain color and come back to life. In fact, they adapt. It is this mechanism that we observe and that we decode”
Caris is not exactly curry but both are related since Reunionese cuisine has several roots, mainly Indian, French, Malagasy, Chinese. No recipe is the ‘property’ of any ethnic group, for instance samosas are mainly sold by the Chinese despite their Indian origins.
Here are simple recipes of Reunionese caris and rougails. These dishes are accompanied by rice, legumes (beans, lentils, etc.) and also brèdes, i.e. green leaves or shoots, sautéed or in broth, such as chards, turnip shoots or catalonia (in Italy), while in Reunion, it will be more shoots of chayotes (chouchous), pumpkins etc.
It is also possible to accompany these dishes with mango or tomato rougail or achards (a version for the dummies is presented here).
These recipes may be found in many books (in French) including, for example, Le grand livre de la cuisine Réunionnaise (sorry for the advertisement on Amazon): some Reunionese will not agree with the addition of tomatoes in the poultry cari and the use of turmeric (curcuma) in the rougail sausages can be discussed… Lovers of séga (one of the two local musics with maloya) will listen to “the assassin put turmeric (curcuma) in the brèdes mourongue” (translation of the title) which demonstrates the culinary differences on such a small territory (50 kms x 50 kms). You could also watch with profit the videos of the late Christian Antou.
Generic sauce base
Garlic: 4->6 cloves
turmeric (curcuma): ½ -> 1 teaspoon. The best turmeric (curcuma) is obviously from Reunion, falsely called ‘saffron’ over there
Ginger -> 20g -> 40g
oil (ex: olive): 3 tablespoons, a little more if the onions stick
The onions are browned in oil. Garlic is then added, followed by turmeric (curcuma) and herbs (allspice leaves or bay leaf or thyme). 30 seconds maximum after adding the turmeric (curcuma), add 25 cl of water and crushed ginger, if necessary. Everything cooks gently for 20 minutes. No salt or pepper.
The sauce can then be frozen. Each block is enough for 4 people and is suitable for the following quantities:
400 to 600 g of meat or fish
A small can or even a large can of beans
250 g of homemade lentils or legumes.
To use a block, simply pass the box under a trickle of warm water. The ice cube of sauce will then be used as is.
Rougail sausages – boucané (smoked pork)
Count 400 to 600 g of material for 4 people. Montbéliard sausages (French specificity) are suitable. The smoked pork does not come from the belly but rather from the ribs, the loin or even the blade. For those who live in the south of Paris, the best Reunionese sausages can be found at the Charcuterie Vayaboury (the owner is the daughter of my brother’s charcutier in Saint-Denis, Réunion).
Allow 5 minutes in boiling water for Reunionese sausages, probably less for Montbeliard. A second desalination is possible, depending on the sausages. In both cases, the sausages will be desalted whole and not pierced. They will then be cut into sections (two to four depending on the size). You can press it down with a fork to remove excess fat. Boucané that is still frozen can be desalted directly.
The boucané will be desalted in blocks for 5 minutes, possibly at the same time as the sausages. Then, it will be cut into small pieces of 2 to 4 cm and desalted again for 5 minutes.
Start the sauce
While desalting the sausages and boucané, you can prepare the sauce as described above or use a frozen sauce base. In the latter case, pour the still-frozen block of sauce stock into a small pot, along with a small or large tin of tinned tomatoes (for example from the Cirio brand), depending on whether you like a rougail with a lot of sauce or not. Cut the tomatoes into pieces.
In season, you may prefer fresh tomatoes (count 400 to 800 g, preferably peeled).
Fresh or canned tomatoes can be cooked gently until the bottom of the sauce has defrosted (approximately 10 mins). You can mash the sauce using a potato masher.
Adding sausages and/or boucané
The sausages and boucané will be added to the sauce and cooking will continue for another ten minutes. Add water if necessary. Check their cooking.
Taste and season with salt and pepper if necessary (reminder: no added salt or pepper so far, at any time, since the sausages and boucané are already salty). It is possible to add bird peppers (remove the seeds if you are too sensitive to the hot spicy taste).
Leave to stand for 20 minutes to 2 hours and reheat before serving. This rougail should not be prepared too much in advance (it is possible but brings nothing, if not the possibility of degreasing it a little).
If just-made sauce stock is used, the legumes will be cooked directly in it, adding water or not, depending on whether canned legumes is used or not. Crush the legumes a little bit (see photo below). If using frozen gravy stock, follow the instructions below.
Use the sauce base or pour a block of still frozen sauce base and a small box or a large box of canned beans into a small pot. Pepper. Add water if necessary. Cook for 10 minutes after the sauce base has thawed. Taste before salting because the boxes are often already salted. Red beans go best with meat and white beans with fish, shellfish and seafood, but this is not an absolute rule.
It is possible to use beans (fresh or dried), lentils or other legumes that have been cooked beforehand. Avoid canned lentils or coral lentils.
Crush the sauce using a potato masher (a little) to thicken the sauce and soften the beans (less important for lentils)
Fish or shrimps cari
Count 400 to 500 g of material for 4 people .
Start the sauce
Use the sauce base or pour a block of still frozen sauce base and a small or large can of canned tomatoes into a small pot, depending on whether you like a curry with a lot of sauce or not. In season, you may prefer fresh tomatoes (allow 400 or 800g, preferably peeled). Cut the tomatoes into pieces.
Fresh or canned tomatoes can be cooked gently until the base of the sauce has defrosted (about 15 to 20 minutes). You can mash the sauce using a potato masher.
It is possible to add bird peppers (remove the seeds if you are too sensitive to them). Add water if necessary. Taste and salt and pepper.
Adding fish or shrimp
They will be added to the sauce, even frozen, and cooking will continue depending on the fish or shellfish. Check their cooking.
Serve fairly quickly.
Poor man’s vegetable achards for dummies
A bag of about 250g of an assortment of vegetables in a bag, for example, in France, with the crunchy plate of Florette with white cabbage, carrot (these two ingredients being essential), frisée, red pepper (the latter being recommended)
You can add a few sprigs of raw cauliflower or a few raw or lightly steamed green beans, preferably slivered (cut in half, or even more, in the direction of the length).
For the seasoning:
a small or medium onion, finely cut
two cloves of crushed garlic (you can add more if you like)
two to three tablespoons of neutral oil (not olive or rapeseed)
fifteen grams of crushed ginger ( you can add more if you like)
a tablespoon of vinegar (preferably red)
a teaspoon of Hilly for instance Espelette pepper (it is still a spicy recipe…). Normally it is recommended to add some ‘real’ hot pepper but OK most of these recipes readers will be European ….Nevertheless, it is also possible to put some hot pepper cut in pieces without the beans and to take it out before adding the vegetables to get a spicy oil
Half a teaspoon of turmeric (curcuma)
A level teaspoon of salt
Fry the onions over medium or low heat WITHOUT BROWNING
Reduce the heat
Add the garlic
Add more oil if necessary
After 30 seconds, add the ginger and the turmeric (curcuma)
After 30 seconds maximum (turmeric burns easily), turn off the heat
Add the vegetables in a bag, the cauliflower (optional), the chilli and the salt and mix well
Pour everything into a deep dish
When the dish is cold, refrigerate
Add the vinegar at least two hours before serving (you can add it after the salt if you want)
Adjust the seasoning if necessary before serving
It should look something like this.
We’ll keep it simple here, “Italian style”. Roughly chop the shoots or leaves, peel two or three cloves of garlic and cut them in half. Fry the garlic cloves in the oil and just before they brown, add the leaves. Cook covered or not (up to you). You could also use some cari sauce and put the bredes in it.
Fill the plate with rice, evenly: the rice must absorb the sauce from the cari or rougail, legumes and brèdes. Serve the other preparations, each one having to occupy its own space on the rice.
For example, don’t serve as below.
Below goes roughly:
No great wine for these dishes. For example a basic Bordeaux, a Beaujolais, red for sausages or boucané or a beer. In Italy, an everyday Barbera, even frizzante. Maybe a Dolcetto. But nothing sweet.
For fish or shrimp, not too strong dry white or a light red.
No rum, consumed only as an aperitif or digestive.
Ideal places to relax, go sightseeing and get away from it all, the departments of Overseas France are destinations of choice for nature-lovers, devotees of sunbathing and sports fans. The ancestral traditions, the idyllic beaches with crystal-clear waters, the lush forests full of walking trials, the beauty and richness of the sea beds, the tropical fauna and flora, and the culinary specialities, exotic fruits and spices have plenty to amaze holidaymakers looking for a change of scene! How could anyone resist the long sandy beaches of Martinique and Guadeloupe, the awe-inspiring, verdant cirques of Réunion, the splendid coral reef of Mayotte or the magnificent nature reserves of Guiana?
Located in the middle of the Caribbean Sea, over 6,000 kilometres from mainland France, the Guadeloupe archipelago is one of the key destinations of the Antilles. Whilst its islands are a dream for fans of idyllic beaches and turquoise lagoons, they also delight nature-lovers, who come here to enjoy exceptional wild landscapes. Climb to the top of the famous Soufrière, hike along the trails of the tropical forest, discover the beauty of the sea bed on a snorkelling or diving trip, take a ride in a catamaran in the Grand Cul-de-Sac Marin nature reserve, admire the local animal and plant life on a leisurely stroll… So many special moments to be experienced to the full! It’s also a paradise for lovers of culinary discoveries: the colourful markets full of exotic fruit and vegetables, spices and seafood, typical Creole dishes, the famous cane juice rum and the delicious coconut sorbet are sure to delight the taste buds… A marvellously exotic and extremely pleasant getaway to look forward to!
While the “island of flowers” is especially popular with those who enjoy a relaxing holiday, with its tropical climate, relaxed pace of life, Creole specialities and idyllic sandy beaches, it also delights nature-lovers. With most of the island protected by the Regional Nature Park, Martinique has exceptional biodiversity as well as extraordinary unspoilt landscapes that hikers love. The Pelée mountain volcano, the Carbet mountains, the Caravelle peninsula, and all the walks in the tropical forest and along the wonderful coastal paths really offer some amazing sights! As well as these natural assets, there’s a fascinating architectural and cultural heritage: the Clément habitation, Schoelcher library in Fort-de-France, Case-Pilote Church, remains of Saint-Pierre, and villages full of picturesque charm are just some of the beautiful sights you’ll discover during your stay in Martinique!
An ethnically and culturally diverse land in the middle of the Indian Ocean, Réunion is a place of amazing heritage and scenic treasures. A haven for hikers and other nature-lovers, this multi-faceted tropical island is a dream destination in which to rest and recuperate, have a change of scene and enjoy the delights of rambling. A place of incredible biodiversity, Réunion will enchant you with its exceptional natural sites. The famous Piton de la Fournaise volcano, the renowned Piton des Neiges peak, the majestic cirques of Mafate, Cilaos and Salazie, or the magnificent wild South are just a few of the fantastic places that will leave you with unforgettable holiday memories! You can also appreciate an amazing blend of cultures and religions as you explore the towns and villages on the island. And to unwind after a visit or hike, you can choose between the lovely sandy beaches of the Indian Ocean, the refreshing waterfalls and lakes of Réunion’s rivers, and the health-giving spa waters of Cilaos… Plenty of ways to enjoy a truly unforgettable stay!
8h30 flight from Paris and 2h from the West Indies, Guyana is a French region in South America bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, located between Brazil and Suriname. French land in the Amazon, it alone brings together exceptional natural resources, still preserved biodiversity, an abundance of secular cultures, natural sites unique in the world, and Europe’s main gateway to space. With its 8 million hectares of virgin forest and more than 5,000 animal and plant species (still in the discovery phase), the inestimable natural heritage of Guyana offers a magnificent playground for nature enthusiasts and lovers of nature. ecotourism on a human scale.With more than ten ethnic groups represented, Guyana is a unique cultural bubbling, shaped by centuries of history and meetings of civilizations! Since the 1960s and the choice of Europe to make it its spaceport, Guyana has undoubtedly had its eyes on space. With X launches on average per year, Guyana is one of the rare French territories to combine both nature and technology.